The adrenal gland is a small endocrine gland that secretes various important hormones. You have two adrenal glands in your body. They both sit on top of your kidneys.
The adrenal gland secretes various hormones that are important for normal body functions.
Normally the adrenal glands are very small and only weigh 5-10grams.
An adrenal incedentaloma is a term given to any lesion or growth of the adrenal gland that is found accidentally.
Adrenal problems are regularly found accidentally when a patient is having a scan for another reason.
Most patients are unaware of any symptoms or may become aware of symptoms when questioned.
The next step once an incedentaloma is found is to determine if it is overactive or possibly a cancerous growth.
Very rarely is an adrenal incidentaloma turn out to be a cancer of the adrenal gland. The overwhelming majority are due to a benign (not dangerous) tumour of the adrenal called an adenoma.
An adenoma can either be inactive or can be overactive and releasing an excess of adrenal hormones. This is then called a functional adenoma.
A CT scan will be done to assess the adrenal gland and tumour more closely. Size is an important feature. Cancer is very rare in tumours less than 3cm. Tumours that are small and not overactive will often be observed. Once a tumour is over 5cm in size the risk of cancer increase quite substantially and surgery is recommended in case there is a small cancer developing.
When an adrenal tumour called an adenoma is secreting excess hormones it is referred to as a functional adrenal adenoma. These tumours that produce excess hormones often have a specific name depending on the hormone that is produced:
Each of these tumours results in a different set of side effects and potential long-lasting problems on the rest of the body.
Is a tumour that secretes an excess of catecholamine (adrenaline and noradrenaline). These hormones normally increase heart rate and blood pressure. Patients with a phaeochromocytoma (phaeo) usually have very high blood pressure that is difficult to control with medication. Patients also complain of sweating, tremors, palpitations (irregular heart eats) and headaches. These tumours can be very dangerous if left untreated. Prior to surgery you will be required to take a powerful blood pressure medication called phenoxybenzamine to lower your blood pressure enough to make surgery safe.
A phaeo can also be due to an inherited genetic disorder that results in multiple endocrine tumours developing. This syndrome is called MEN-1(multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1).
is a tumour that secretes and excess of cortisol. Patients with a Cushing’s tumour have symptoms and signs that are due to an excess cortisol. This is called Cushing’s syndrome and causes the following signs and symptoms:
Is the result of an adrenal tumour that secretes excessive Aldosterone. The aldosterone acts on the kidneys causing them to reabsorb Sodium and water to raise blood pressure. It does this by secreting Potassium in the urine instead of the sodium. The result is a patient who has a high blood pressure and a low potassium level.
If this is determined, patients will undergo a test called adrenal vein sampling to confirm the high aldosterone is due to a tumour and not due to general hyperplasia of the adrenal glands which would not require adrenal surgery.
Tests are broken into two categories:
These are performed to locate the tumour or to assess the anatomy and surrounding structures to aid the removal. The common imaging studies performed include:
Depending on the type of tumour that is suspected a series of functional test may be ordered. Initially a screening set of test will be conducted to see if a tumour is functioning and secreting excess hormones.
Once the likely type of tumour is determined further test will be arranged to confirm the result.
A phaeochromocytoma will take up a fluorescent protein. When scanned the adrenal gland will glow bright conforming a phaeo. This will also confirm only a single gland is involved and that there is not extra-adrenal disease.
This is a blood test to assess your cortisol levels before and after being given a dose of dexamethasone. Normally your cortisol will be supressed by the dexamethasone. If a tumour producing excess is present the cortisol will remain elevated. The first blood test is done in evening followed by the dexamethasone. The second blood test is performed at 8am the following morning.
Is only performed when a Conn’s tumour secreting an excess of aldosterone is suspected. This test requires an invasive procedure called an angiogram where a catheter is passed via a vein in your leg to the adrenal glands. Samples are taken to measure the aldosterone level. If a Conn’s tumour is present then the side with the tumour should be greatly increased.
Not all tumours need to be removed by an adrenal surgeon. However, there are guidelines that determine what lesions need removal and which ones can be observed.
All need removing due the secondary effects on the body, no matter what size.
Traditionally adrenal surgery has been performed via a keyhole approach through the front of your abdomen. Dr Green is now routinely performing what is referred to as a retroperitoneal laparoscopic approach. This is still a keyhole approach that removes the adrenal gland through your back.
There are a number of benefits to this type of adrenal surgery. The most beneficial improvement is a faster recovery time. Patients are usually up and about the same evening after the surgery and nearly all are ready to go home the next day. This results in a faster return to normal activities and less time away from work.
In the previous older approach from the front of your abdomen not all patients where suitable for a keyhole operation. If you have had previous abdominal surgery the keyhole approach is often not suitable or possible and a large cut was needed. This results in a prolonged hospital stay and lengthy painful recovery. The approach through the back that is performed by Dr Green can still be performed even if you have had previous abdominal surgery. Therefore, people who may not be offered keyhole surgery if having a front approach will now be suitable for a keyhole approach.
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